## Roof Structural Components: Framing And Sheathing

These are the structural components to examine. The usual sign of problems is a sagging or uneven condition. Your ridge line should be straight and not sag. If its swooping down between rafters, your sheathing may be at fault.

If its sagging on the ridge line, you might have foundation damage. Check inside the home under the sag for cracking drywall and doors that drag.

## Hip And Ridge Cap Shingles

Hips and ridges are covered with cap shingles, which are 1-ft. shingle squares that wrap over the hip or ridge. Like regular shingles, they overlap for a 5-in. exposure.On roofs shingled with three-tab or no-cutout shingles, you simply cut standard shingles into caps. You can cap about 35 lin. ft. of ridge or hips with each bundle of three-tab shingles that come three bundles to the square. You can also salvage waste shingle pieces and portions of damaged shingles for use as caps.

For roofs shingled with laminated shingles, multi-cutout shingles, and other patterned shingles, youll have to order hip-and-ridge shingles that are manufactured as companions to the specific shingle product you are using. Theyre sold by the bundle and usually cap 35 lin. ft., but check with your supplier because some products vary. Just measure the length of the ridges and hips and divide by 35 to determine how many bundles of regular or hip-and-ridge shingles youll need.

## How Shingle Quantities Are Measured

Roof shingles are sold by both the bundle and by the square. A square of shingles is the quantity needed to cover 100 sq. ft. of roof. Shingles are packaged in paper- or plastic-wrapped bundles designed to be light enough for a person to carry, so heavier shingles require more bundles per square. Three bundles to a square is most common, which applies to most **three-tab strip shingles** and some lightweight laminated shingles. Heavier three-tabbed shingles and laminated shingles require four, or sometimes five, bundles to cover a square. When shingles come three bundles to the square, there are 29 standard-sized shingles in each bundle.

Figuring out the roof area is the first step to determine how many bundles youll need to order. There are two ways to size up a new or freshly stripped roof: the measurement method and the sheet-count method. Theres a third method for calculating bundles when youll be laying new shingles over old or if the old roof is still in place.

Once you have a bundle or square count for the main roof area, youll add additional shingles to account for waste, starter shingles, and extra shingles for hip and ridge caps.

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## Laying Out The Starter And First Course

Moving from the eave to the ridge of the roof, measure at several locations across the width of the roof to see if there are major variations. To account for small variations, an overhang of 3/8 inch is typically used for the starter course and the first course, though if you measure larger variations along the roof line, up to an inch, adjust the overhang accordingly while avoiding shingles hanging beyond, or down into the gutters. Variations larger than an inch may require some extra work on the roof structure to straighten the edge of the eave. Measure the height of the starter shingle and subtract 3/8 inch from the height to allow for the overhang. Snap a line across the roof at that distance and, starting from the left side, install the starter course with the top edge even with that line and overhanging the rake by 3/8 inch. The rake is the edge of the roof running from the eave to the ridge. Install the first course of shingles with the bottom edges even to the bottom edge of the starter course.

## The Type Of Roof You Want

**The type of roof you want will have a big impact on the cost of your roof replacement.** There are a variety of different types of roofs for you to choose from based on your budget and the look you want.

If youre on a tight budget and looking for an affordable roof, an asphalt shingle roof might be right for you. But if youre looking to upgrade to a longer-lasting and sharp looking roof, theres the standing seam metal roof.

Asphalt and metal are two of the most commonly seen roof types, but there are also premium shingle roofs that come at a premium price. These roofs give you a unique look that really stands out. These premium roofs include cedar shake, slate, and tile.

The premium shingle roofs can get expensive quickly and be more than triple the cost of an asphalt shingle roof.

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## How Do You Measure A Roof For New Asphalt Shingles

- Cindy on Jun 02, 2018Hi Butch, All you need to know is the square footage of the roof. Add 10% extra for do overs or mistakes.
- Jewellmartin on Jun 02, 2018The width of the house times the pitch , for each section of the roof and gables, Then add all the areas together and convert to square yards. Shingles are usually sold in bundles that cover a certain number of square yards. Divide the area of the roof in square yards, by the square yards for a bundle, and you will know how many bundles you need, at a minimum. Buy 5-10% more bundles than the minimum, with a buy-back guarantee for unopened bundles. You will need roofing nails or staples, waterproof caulk for around every vent, pipe, gable, apex of roof sections, chimneys, and even more, plus metal flashing at each crease and around all the chimneys, etc., You will need at least one good ladder that is taller than the roof edge, and a retractable measuring tape, hammer, nail gun, caulk gun. Budget at least 10% over your projected costs for contingencies, like rotting roof boards. Best wishes to you

## How Do You Calculate The Roof Square Footage Of 1500 Square Feet House

**Figure out the area of the house plus overhangs**:- determine the squre footage of the shed foot print by measuring the length and width of the shed including the overhangs. Assume the overhangs are 1 feet both sides eves and rake then you have 2 feet extra, so each dimension for 30Ã50 = 1500 sq ft with overhangs is around 32Ã52 = 1664 square footage.

**Find the roof pitch or slope**:- the roof pitch is the amount of slope. The slope is described by the rise in inches or how far up it goes over the run in inches or how far horizontal it goes. We will use a 4 in 12 pitch. For every 4 inches the roof goes up to the peak it goes 12 inches horizontally.

**Calculate the square of rise and run and sum it**:- square of rise 4Ã4=16, square of run = 12Ã12 = 144, add both 16 +144 = 160.

**Find the square root of the sum**:- square root of 160 = 12.649

**Sum divide by 12 to get the product**:- square root of 160 = 12.649 is divided by 12 as 12.649 Ã· 12 = 1.054, hence 1.054 equals the product

**Multiply the product by the flat roof area and divide by 100**:- our house is 1500 square footage which as 1664 sq ft with overhangs, so 1.054 x 1664 = 1754 square feet, 1454 / 100 = 17.54 squares.

**Add 10% for wastes and starter**:- wastages 10% of 17.54 squares = 1.754, so final squares of shingles do you need = 17.54+ 1.754 = 19.294 squares, it is rounded to 19 squares.

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## Finding The Total Roof Area

Once the area of the roofs footprint is known, the overall roof area can be found by accounting for the roofs pitch. The pitch of the roof is the rise over a 12-inch run. Use our roof pitch calculator to find the pitch of your roof.

Next, multiply the footprint of the roof by the multiplier below for your roof pitch to find the overall roof area.For example, a 4/12 pitch roof that is 100 square feet:

100 × 1.054 = 105.4ft2

#### Roof Pitch Area Multipliers

Multipliers for common roof pitches that can be used to find the total area of a roof.Pitch |
---|

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## How To Measure A Roof For Shingles From The Ground

Remember when your high school algebra teacher said you needed to know how to calculate slope. He may have been thinking about measuring the square footage of a roof.

This method allows you to calculate roof slope and determine the roof area while keeping both feet firmly on the ground.

Begin by measuring the distance from the edge of the eave to the point at which you can barely see the slope of the roof. This works best if you can attach the tape measure to the eve, then walk to the appropriate place and take the measurement at eye level.

This measurement is the horizontal run of the roof. Now, stand under the gutter of the roof you are measuring the slope for and measure the distance from your eye to the roof overhang. This is the roof rise.

Divide the roof rise by the horizontal run to get your roof pitch. For example, if the rise is 60 inches and the run is 120 inches, youll have a roof pitch of 6/12.

As in the method described above, measure the length of the roof from the edge of one eave to the other and the width from one eave to the other. For example, a roof that measures 60 feet by 40 feet would be 2,400 square feet.

Next, use the table below to determine the slope factor. In our example, the 6/12 roof would have a slope factor of 1.118. In our above example, you would multiply 2,400 square feet times the slope factor to get the total square footage of 2,683 square feet.

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## How To Lay Shingles

Many people wonder **how to lay shingles** on the roof, but in their majority, home owners pay contractors thousands of dollars for a job that is not difficult to do. If you consider working on this project on your own, here is a set of instructions on how to lay shingles.

#### Step 1Determine the Number of Shingles Needed

Estimate how many shingles it will take to cover the whole roof area. Start by measuring from the peak to the overhang at the lower edge of the roof. Get the total area in square feet and subtract the area covered by chimneys and other surfaces that do not require shingles. The result will determine how many shingles are needed for the project. Go to a home improvement store to buy a sufficient number of shingles needed to cover the entire roof.

#### Step 2Prepare Everything Needed

Make sure to be fully prepared with all necessary tools and materials before you start laying shingles on the roof. Other materials needed include a roofing nailer, felt paper, starter strips, and utility knife.

**S**tep 3Remove Old Shingles

Replace old shingles if required. Do not lay the new shingles on top of the old ones since it will increase the chances of leaks. Tear the old shingles away from the roof first.

#### Step 4Prepare the Roof

#### Step 5Start Laying Shingles

## How To Determine The Number Of Shingles Required

Now that youve calculated the total area of your roof surface, you can determine the number of shingles needed to complete the house. Shingles usually come in bundles, with one bundle enough to cover a third of a square.

Next, convert the total square footage to squares, then multiply the number of squares by a third. That will give you the approximate number of bundles needed for the roofing project. Finally, increase the number of bundles by 15 percent to account for waste.

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## How To Calculate Shingles

To calculate the number of shingles youll need, youll need first to measure the square footage of your roof, which is covered above.

Once you have the square footage, divide that number by 100. This will tell you how many roofing squares you have. If your roof is 4500 square feet, divide this number by 100 and youll get 45.

Since we know that most shingles require three bundles to make a square, youll multiply 45 times 3 to find out how many bundles you will need. In this case, youll need 135 bundles of shingles.

If you want to take it a step further and calculate the amount of individual shingles youll need for your project, multiply 135 by the number of shingles indicated on the bundle.

## Calculate The Roof Area

Now that you have all of your roof measurements, you can calculate its surface area. Simply multiply the length and width of each rectangular plane, and then add the combined area of the hips. Then multiply this number by the roofs slope factor, and then multiply this final result by 1.10 to allow for error.

In this example, our imaginary homes hip roof would cover a surface area of + , while the lean-to roof would be equal to . This gives you a total surface area of 935 square feet. Multiplying this by the slope factor of 1.03 equals 963.05 square feet. Multiply this by 1.10 to obtain 1059.4, which is a good estimate of your roofs surface area.

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## How To Measure Your Roof From The Top Of The Structure

The most accurate way to measure your roof is by being on top of the roof itself. You can make sure each roof sections slope area is accounted for. Youll need some graph paper, measuring tape, and a calculator. For our example, well use a hip roof, though you can use this technique to measure any shape roof with varying complexity.

## Cost To Remove Asphalt Shingles

Removing asphalt typically costs between **$3 and $5 per square foot**. One benefit of asphalt shingles is that they can go directly on top of your old shingles provided the roof deck is in good condition.

If the roof deck is in bad shape, you have two or more shingle layers, or if your current roof is shake-shingled, roofers will need to remove all the old materials and roofing. Ask a roofing specialist near you to include this step in the estimate so you arent surprised by the added cost later on.

##### Get Local Quotes From Roofing Professionals

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## Heres How To Check For Squareand How To Compensate For A Roof Thats Out Of Square

During the initial evaluation of a roofing job, you checked the roof at a few points to determine how many shingles to order, but you may not have checked whether the roof is square. Roofs that are out of square can make the slots between shingle tabs look cockeyed.

To determine if a roof is square, measure from the eaves to the ridge at several points along the roof to see how parallel they run. Do the same from one gable end to the other to determine parallel and also measure the roof diagonally.

Use your eye or a taut string to check how straight the roof edges aresome adjustments can be made with the shingles to overcome crooked edges so the roof looks even.

If the roof isnt square, you can give the illusion that it is by tweaking how you position the shingles. Make a sketch of the roof and note your findings. This will help you decide how to correct the errors when you lay out for the roof shingles.

## Figure Out Your Homes Footprint

If you use the square footage of your home, youll only get a vague idea of what the square footage of your roof is. **Thats why you have to figure out your homes footprint.**

A person of average height will have a stride somewhere between 2 to 2.5 feet. To figure out your homes footprint, you can step off the dimensions of your roof by counting the steps you take to get the length of your home. You will then step off the width of your home.

After stepping off the length and width of your home, youll multiply the two numbers to get your homes footprint.

**Length x width = your homes footprint**

Your calculations are going to be off, but measuring this way can give you a basic idea of your homes footprint. Keep in mind, square footage of a house does not equal the square footage of a roof.

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## If Youd Rather Not Climb Onto Your Roof:

## Two: Split Tricky Shapes Into Squares And Rectangles

Once you have these figures, return to the safety of your home. Notice in the image above that the hip roof is made of two triangles and two trapezoids. Trapezoids are tricky to get the area measurement of, so were going to split each of them into two triangles and a rectangle:

We know enough about the overall measurements of the roof to fill in the missing values. Lets fill the figures in now:

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